Music, Shares

Stenio Marcius – Alguém Como Eu

Entra Mestre,descansa um pouco
Estás cansado,estás sedento e rouco
Dorme Mestre, a casa é Tua
Já fechei porta e janela pra rua

Deixou me falando só
Dormiu tão pesado fazia dó
Como será Mestre este sonho Teu?
Sonhas como homem? sonhas como Deus?
Sonhas com a glória que tinhas com o Pai, na luz?
Ou sonhas com a cruz?

Perdoa Mestre, mas já é hora
Uma multidão te espera lá fora
Estás decidido, não te detenho
Vais curando até chegar ao lenho

Partiu, fica a paz em mim,
Fica sala com cheiro de jasmim
Vai verter a vida do corpo Seu,
Pra levar a culpa de alguém como eu,
Pra lavar o sujo do meu próprio eu,
Levar-me puro a Deus

Original, Shorts

How to respond to recruiters

Hello [name]

Thanks so much for reaching out. I’m always interested in hearing about what new and exciting opportunities are out there.

As a software engineer with over [number] years of experience I’m sure you can imagine that I get a very high volume of recruiters reaching out on LinkedIn. It is a wonderful position of privilege to be in and I’m thankful for it.

It does however mean that I don’t have the time to hop on a call with everyone who reaches out. A lot of the times, incoming messages represent a very poor fit indeed.

I would love to continue the conversation, but before I do, I’d like to level set around the level of seniority that you’re looking for.

Can you send along the company/project name, role description and the total compensation details for the role you’re reaching out in reference to?

I look forward to hearing from you.

Pedro

Longs, Original

The New Testament Creeds

(Translated from the PT version)

It’s Easter again!

Easter is originally a Jewish holiday , but it was adopted by Christians as a time of celebration of Jesus’ death and resurrection. The Last Supper, just before Jesus was arrested and sentenced to death, was the celebration of the Jewish Passover .

We celebrate the death and resurrection of Jesus, the most important fact of Christianity.
If Jesus was not resurrected then Christianity is false.


The main sources that affirm this fact are the documents of the New Testament, but this is composed of several books, written on different dates. Common sense tells us that the closer an event is to your account, the more likely it is to be true to reality, as there was less time for legendary and mythological embellishments.

What are the dates of composition of the various books of the New Testament?
In round numbers, the four gospels are dated 40 to 65 years after the crucifixion, with Mark the oldest and John the most recent. The Apostle Paul’s letters, which make up a large part of the New Testament, all predate this. Paul died about 40 years after Jesus. There is no complete consensus on the exact dates, but we are certainly in the correct decades.

Is 40 years after the fact close enough?

Let’s make three comparisons with other historical figures:

  1. Buddha lived in the 6th century BC. The oldest Buddhist texts we have date from 500 to 900 years after the birth of Buddha.
  2. Muhammad lived in the 6th century after Christ. His earliest biography of him dates to over 100 years after his death, but we don’t have it. The oldest surviving records date back over 200 years after Muhammad.
  3. Alexander the Great lived in the 4th century BC. The oldest source of information we have about his life dates from 300 years after the fact.

We can see that the New Testament is well positioned to be a reliable source of information when it comes to staying close to events. There are letters from the apostle Paul that date back 20 years after Jesus’ death.
But can we get any closer?

The New Testament Creeds

In Paul’s letters we find small passages that have a different formulation from the rest of the surrounding text. They are credal formulations , constructed in a way that aids recitation and memorization.
These creeds are styled differently from the rest of the text of the letters, and in some of them Paul claims that he received them. For this reason many believe that a good many (if not all) of these creeds are pre-Pauline.
These creeds are probably the oldest historical record of Christendom and are a unique window into the content of the early Christian proclamation.

What is the content of these creeds? Let’s read 4 of them

CREED 1

If you declare with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you profess your faith and are saved

Romans 10:9,10

This creed clearly affirms the resurrection, but it also identifies Jesus with the Jews’ own God, YHWH or Jehovah . Paul calls Jesus “Lord”, and 3 verses later he quotes a verse from the Old Testament in which the name of God is translated Lord.

And it shall come to pass that everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved;

Romans 10:13 or Joel 2:32

CREED 2

regarding his Son, who as to his earthly life was a descendant of David, and who through the Spirit of holiness was appointed the Son of God in power by his resurrection from the dead: Jesus Christ our Lord

Romans 1:3-4

In this creed Jesus is called the Son of God and his humanity and resurrection are affirmed.

CREED 3

Who, being in very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be used to his own advantage;
rather, he made himself nothing by taking the very nature of a servant, being made in human likeness.
And being found in appearance as a man, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to death — even death on a cross!
Therefore God exalted him to the highest place and gave him the name that is above every name, that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and every tongue acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Philippians 2:6-11

In this creed, Jesus is affirmed as a being who pre-existed his incarnation in a divine form, but decided to humble himself to the point of being condemned to death unjustly. Yet God reversed his humiliation and exalted him above all creation.

CREDO 4

For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, and then to the Twelve. After that, he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers and sisters at the same time, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles, and last of all he appeared to me also, as to one abnormally born.

1 Corinthians 15:3-8

This creed is very interesting in that it affirms the resurrection while enumerating its eyewitnesses.

In summary, the early Christians immediately after Jesus’ death affirmed his divinity , pre-existence , death for our sins , burial , and resurrection . These ideas were not later developments that took years to crystallize. They are the basic facts of Christianity from its genesis.

But how early can we date these creeds?
It is impossible to date them precisely. However, we can make good estimates. Knowing a little about the history of the apostle Paul, we know of two moments in which he had contact with the church in Jerusalem, the place of all these events.

Three years after his conversion, Paul met with Peter and James . Fourteen years after that the first council of Jerusalem took place around the year 50. It is possible that Paul received these creeds from the other apostles at one of these times. The exact dates of the apostle’s life are disputed, but not by much. We can consider a margin of error of about two years. We are therefore sure that these creeds would have been fully developed 20 years after Jesus’ death.

However, if we are willing to speculate a little, we can go a step further and try to date the very creation of these creeds. I contend that even before the apostle Paul himself was converted, two to five years after the crucifixion, these creeds would already be in circulation among believers. To support this claim I will give two arguments.

First, it is stated in the book of Acts that Paul persecuted the church, arrested , threatened and even consented to the death of Christians.
Why were Paul and the Jewish religious so angry with the Christians? Was it because they claimed a resurrection? Not. Paul as a Pharisee accepted the resurrection . Was it because they affirmed the coming of the messiah? Not. That would be a good thing for a Jew. However, one thing a faithful Jew could not accept was the claim that a man was divine. Jesus as God was unacceptable, and in the eyes of a Pharisee a blasphemy punishable by death.

Second, we can read that immediately after his conversion Paul preached the same Christian message that made those who affirmed it worthy of death.

At once he began to preach in the synagogues that Jesus is the Son of God. All those who heard him were astonished and asked, “Isn’t he the man who raised havoc in Jerusalem among those who call on this name? And hasn’t he come here to take them as prisoners to the chief priests?” Yet Saul grew more and more powerful and baffled the Jews living in Damascus by proving that Jesus is the Messiah. After many days had gone by, there was a conspiracy among the Jews to kill him, but Saul learned of their plan. Day and night they kept close watch on the city gates in order to kill him

Acts 9:20-24

This is the message that Christians have been saying for nearly 2000 years.

Jesus pre-existed his incarnation. He is God himself.
He voluntarily “stripped” himself in order to enter the world in human form.
He died crucified for our sins and was buried.
His tomb is empty because he is risen!
Happy Easter!

Longs, Original

Os credos do novo testamento

É novamente páscoa!

A páscoa é originalmente uma festa judaica, mas foi adoptada pelos cristãos como um momento de celebração da morte e ressurreição de Jesus. A última ceia, mesmo antes de Jesus ser preso e condenado à morte foi a celebração da páscoa judaica.

Celebramos a morte e ressurreição de Jesus, o facto mais importante do cristianismo.
Se Jesus não ressuscitou então o cristianismo é falso.


As principais fontes que afirmam este facto são os documentos do novo testamento, mas este é composto por vários livros, redigidos em datas distintas. O senso comum diz-nos que quanto mais perto está um acontecimento do seu relato, maior a probabilidade de ele ser fiel à realidade, pois menos tempo houve para embelezamentos lendários e mitológicos.

Quais as datas de composição dos vários livros do novo testamento?
Em números redondos, os quatro evangelhos são datados de 40 a 65 anos depois da crucificação, sendo Marcos o mais antigo e João o mais recente. As cartas do apóstolo Paulo, que constituem uma boa parte do novo testamento são todas anteriores a isso. Paulo morreu cerca de 40 anos depois de Jesus. Não há consenso completo sobre as datas exactas, mas estamos com certeza nas décadas correctas.

Será que 40 anos depois dos factos é perto o suficiente?

Vamos fazer três comparações com outras figuras históricas:

  1. Buda viveu no século VI antes de Cristo. Os textos budistas mais antigos que temos datam de 500 a 900 anos depois do nascimento de Buda.
  2. Maomé viveu no século VI depois de Cristo. A sua biografia mais antiga data de mais de 100 anos depois da sua morte, mas não a temos. Os registos mais antigos sobreviventes datam de mais de 200 anos depois de Maomé
  3. Alexandre o grande viveu no século IV antes de Cristo. A fonte de informação mais antiga que temos sobre a sua vida data de 300 anos depois dos factos

Podemos ver que o novo testamento está bem posicionado para ser uma fonte fiável de informação no que toca a estar perto dos acontecimentos. Há cartas do apóstolo Paulo que datam de 20 anos depois da morte de Jesus.
Mas será que podemos chegar mais perto?

Os credos do novo testamento

Nas cartas de Paulo encontramos pequenas passagens que têm uma formulação diferente do resto do texto envolvente. São formulações credais, construídas de uma forma que ajude a recitação e memorização.
Estes credos têm um estilo diferente do resto do texto das cartas, e em alguns deles, Paulo afirma que os recebeu. Por esta razão muitos acreditam que uma boa parte destes credos (se não todos) são pré-Paulinos.
Estes credos são provavelmente o registo histórico mais antigo da cristandade e são uma janela única para o conteúdo da proclamação dos primeiros cristãos.

Qual o conteúdo desses credos? Vamos ler 4 deles

CREDO 1

A saber: Se com a tua boca confessares ao Senhor Jesus, e em teu coração creres que Deus o ressuscitou dentre os mortos, serás salvo. Visto que com o coração se crê para a justiça, e com a boca se faz confissão para a salvação.

Romanos 10:9,10

Este credo afirma claramente a ressurreição, mas também identifica Jesus com o próprio Deus dos judeus, YHWH ou Jeová. Paulo chama a Jesus “Senhor”, e 3 versículos depois cita um versículo do velho testamento em que o nome de Deus é traduzido por Senhor.

E há de ser que todo aquele que invocar o nome do Senhor será salvo;

Romanos 10:13 ou Joel 2:32

CREDO 2

Acerca de seu Filho, que nasceu da descendência de Davi segundo a carne, declarado Filho de Deus em poder, segundo o Espírito de santificação, pela ressurreição dentre os mortos, Jesus Cristo, nosso Senhor

Romanos 1:3,4

Neste credo Jesus é chamado Filho de Deus e são afirmadas a sua humanidade e a sua ressurreição

CREDO 3

Que, sendo em forma de Deus, não teve por usurpação ser igual a Deus, mas esvaziou-se a si mesmo, tomando a forma de servo, fazendo-se semelhante aos homens; E, achado na forma de homem, humilhou-se a si mesmo, sendo obediente até à morte, e morte de cruz.
Por isso, também Deus o exaltou soberanamente, e lhe deu um nome que é sobre todo o nome; Para que ao nome de Jesus se dobre todo o joelho dos que estão nos céus, e na terra, e debaixo da terra, e toda a língua confesse que Jesus Cristo é o Senhor, para glória de Deus Pai.

Filipenses 2:6-11

Neste credo, Jesus é afirmado como um ser que pré-existia a sua encarnação numa forma divina, mas decidiu humilhar-se ao ponto de ser condenado à morte injustamente. Apesar disso Deus inverteu a sua humilhação e exaltou-o acima de toda a criação.

CREDO 4

Porque primeiramente vos entreguei o que também recebi: que Cristo morreu por nossos pecados, segundo as Escrituras,
E que foi sepultado, e que ressuscitou ao terceiro dia, segundo as Escrituras.
E que foi visto por Cefas, e depois pelos doze.
Depois foi visto, uma vez, por mais de quinhentos irmãos, dos quais vive ainda a maior parte, mas alguns já dormem também.
Depois foi visto por Tiago, depois por todos os apóstolos.
E por derradeiro de todos me apareceu também a mim, como a um abortivo.

1 Coríntios 15:3-8

Este credo é muito interessante pelo facto de afirmar a ressurreição ao mesmo tempo que enumera as suas testemunhas oculares

Em resumo, os primeiros cristãos imediatamente após a morte de Jesus afirmavam a sua divindade, pré-existência, morte pelos nossos pecados, sepultamento e ressurreição. Estas ideias não foram desenvolvimentos posteriores que demoraram anos a cristalizar. São os factos base do cristianismo desde a sua génese.

Mas quão cedo conseguimos datar estes credos?
É impossível datá-los precisamente. No entanto podemos fazer boas estimativas. Conhecendo um pouco da história do apóstolo Paulo sabemos de dois momentos em que ele teve contacto com a igreja em Jerusalém, o local de todos estes acontecimentos.

Três anos depois da sua conversão, Paulo encontrou-se com Pedro e Tiago. Catorze anos depois disso deu-se o primeiro concílio de Jerusalém cerca do ano 50. É possivel que Paulo tenha recebido estes credos dos outros apóstolos num destes momentos. As datas exactas da vida do apóstolo são disputadas mas não por muito. Podemos considerar uma margem de erro de cerca de dois anos. Temos portanto a certeza que estes credos já estariam completamente desenvolvidos 20 anos depois da morte de Jesus.

No entanto se estivermos dispostos a especular um pouco, podemos dar mais um passo e tentar datar a própria criação destes credos. Eu afirmo que mesmo antes do próprio apóstolo Paulo se converter, entre dois a cinco anos depois da crucificação, estes credos já estariam em circulação entre os crentes. Para suportar esta afirmação vou dar dois arugmentos.

Em primeiro lugar, é afirmado no livro de Actos que Paulo perseguia a igreja, prendia, ameaçava e até consentia na morte dos cristãos.
Por que razão estava Paulo e os religiosos Judeus tão zangados com os cristãos? Seria por eles afirmarem uma ressurreição? Não. Paulo como fariseu aceitava a ressurreição. Seria por eles afirmarem a vinda do messias? Não. Isso seria algo bom para um Judeu. No entanto, algo que um judeu fiel não poderia aceitar era a afirmação que um homem era divino. Jesus como Deus era inaceitável, e aos olhos de um fariseu uma blasfémia punível com morte.

Em segundo lugar, podemos ler que imediatamente depois da sua conversão Paulo pregava a mesma mensagem cristã que tornava digno de morte quem a afirmava.

E logo nas sinagogas pregava a Cristo, que este é o Filho de Deus. E todos os que o ouviam estavam atônitos, e diziam: Não é este o que em Jerusalém perseguia os que invocavam este nome, e para isso veio aqui, para os levar presos aos principais dos sacerdotes?
Saulo, porém, se esforçava muito mais, e confundia os judeus que habitavam em Damasco, provando que aquele era o Cristo.
E, tendo passado muitos dias, os judeus tomaram conselho entre si para o matar. Mas as suas ciladas vieram ao conhecimento de Saulo;

Atos 9:20-24

Esta é a mensagem que os cristãos afirmam há cerca de 2000 anos.

Jesus pré-existia a sua encarnação. Ele é o próprio Deus.
Voluntariamente “despiu-se” dessa forma para entrar no mundo em forma humana.
Morreu crucificado pelos nossos pecados e foi sepultado.
O seu sepulcro está vazio porque ele ressuscitou!
Feliz Páscoa!

Quotes, Shares

Trust God and use your mind

“Many of us, especially those who have had the privilege of higher education, are sometimes tempted to trust our minds first and only turn to God when we get into difficulty. That is certainly not what the apostles did; their attitude was the very reverse. They trusted God, and used their minds, their talents, and gifts in God’s service. Trusting the mind and using God is tantamount to idolatry: trusting God and using the mind is Christian. Once we get this clear we can see that our intellect is no different from our other talents. It is a gift of God to be used in his service with his help, and not to be trusted as an idol or God-substitute.”

Determined to Believe?: The Sovereignty of God, Freedom, Faith and Human – John C Lennox
Original, Shorts

Why delete code?

While it may be necessary to use code to build value on software projects, there are many not so great things that increase the more code we have. Let’s make the 10 commandments of No Code™!

  1. No Code has no bugs
  2. No Code has no technical debt
  3. No Code has no cognitive load on developers
  4. No Code builds in no time
  5. No Code does checkout in no time
  6. No Code makes our tooling faster
  7. No Code has 100% code coverage
  8. No Code is easier to read than some code
  9. No Code scales infinitely
  10. No Code is no one’s problem

In the impossibility to write No Code™, let’s simply write less code.
Let’s only write the minimum code necessary.
Let’s delete all unnecessary or unused code! (while keeping all functionality)

Longs, Original

The Angel of the Lord

I had a recent conversation with some Muslim friends, where they raised my attention to the story of Jacob in Genesis, where he fights with a man. They were showing me a Christian commentary on this text where this man is said to be God himself, and possibly even Jesus. As Muslims, they see as unfit and even impossible for God to enter into creation as a man, and much less so wrestling with someone. As a defense for the Christian commentary I can only think of two lines of evidence from the text itself.

  • Firstly, the man says to Jacob “you have struggled with God”.
  • Secondly, Jacob, after asking the man for his name, says that he “seen God face to face”.

Both these statements are reasons to make us wonder. What did the man mean when he said that Jacob struggled with God? What did Jacob mean when he said he saw God face to face? Were this metaphors? My Muslim friends are right in questioning this interpretation. It surely is strange that an all powerful entity fights with a mere mortal man. I agreed with them in that this story does not state clearly that this person is another thing than just a man or perhaps an angel.

But can we find any other instances on the bible where someone is portrayed as God himself entering into creation? Are there clearer texts where we can establish some grounding for the claim that this fight was not with a mere man? I claim that there are.


I will now try to show from the first five books of the bible, the Torah, that many times God has entered into creation. I will do this from the Torah because the Quran also recognizes it as an inspired scripture from God, written by Moses. I will do this by looking for the passages that where this person is referred as the Angel of the Lord. For this project, I will search the Torah for the expression “מלאך יהוה” which is translated as the Angel of the Lord.

  • The word מלאך, transliterated as malak means messenger or ambassador. It is translated as αγγελος, transliterated as angelos in the Septuaging, which has the same meaning.
  • The word יהוה transliterated as yehovah is the name of God for the Jews. God is what he is but יהוה is who he is. It is translated as κύριος the Septuaging, which means Lord, as in the one who has supreme authority.

There are only four passages on the Torah where the expression “מלאך יהוה” is used. In each one of them, I find reasons to identify this messenger with God himself.

Even if you don’t consider the Torah as a sacred text, or maybe not even a historical account of real events but only as a human production, the writer did leave some (not so) subtle evidence that this person was not simply an angel or messenger but rather a divine figure whom the text identifies with the God of the Jews.

Hagar

The first occurrence is in Genesis 16. This is the story of the first son of Abraham, Ishmael, born through the Egyptian slave of his wife Sarah Hagar. For reasons that are not important here, Hagar and her son encounter the Angel of the Lord. Some things that the angel says and how Hagar speaks about him after the encounter are noteworthy.

  • First, the angel says that it is he will increase her descendants. Not that God will increase, but rather the Angel of the Lord will do it.
  • Secondly, the writer clearly says that it was יהוה, yehovah, who spoke to Hagar, and that she named this entity as “the God who sees me

Abraham

The second occurrence is in Genesis 22, the famous story when God asks Abraham to sacrifice his son. Right before Abraham slays his son the Angel of the Lord intervenes and stops the sacrifice. Some notes:

  • First, even though it was God who asked for the sacrifice, the Angel of the Lord said that Abraham didn’t withhold his son from him. Doing so was an evidence that Abraham feared God.
  • Secondly, the Angel of the Lord swore by himself that he would bless Abraham and his descendants due to his obedience.

Moses

The third occurrence is in the book of Exodus. In the third chapter, Moses is called to be the savior of he Hebrews, who were slaves in Egypt.

  • The only thing to note here is that verse 2 says that it was the Angel of the Lord who was on the bush, but in verse 4 it was God himself.
  • This is a very interesting passage because here God says that his name is “I AM”, who is related to the proper name of God יהוה, yehovah. An interesting topic for another time.

Balaam

The last occurrence is a very strange one indeed. It is on the 22nd chapter of the book of Numbers, where God is angry at a man called Balaam. There are many details on this story that give rise to all sorts of questions, but even here we can see that the Angel of the Lord identifies himself with God.

  • Firstly, in the beginning God tells Balaam to only do what I tell you, but in the end the Angel of the Lord tells him to only speak what I tell you.
  • Secondly, opposition comes to Balaam because his path is a reckless one before the Angel of the Lord, not before God.

It is my opinion that these 4 texts clearly show that in the Torah this entity called the Angel of the Lord is actually God himself, entering into creation and interacting with it. There are other texts outside of the Torah that say more about this entity, and some other passages in the bible where we see God interacting with his creation, but from these four we can establish a good starting point. This incredible notion, that God can walk among us, is actually possible in a biblical worldview. I may need to go deeper here…